Maize is cultivated worldwide as well as it is a staple food for various countries. It is used in ethanol, sweeteners, corn syrup, beverage formation, and feed for livestock and humans. It gives higher output than any other grain.
Maize has six main kinds: just like pod corn, sweet corn, flour corn, dent corn, flint corn, and popcorn.
The Enormous cultivation of Maize is done in Africa (33 million tons produced just in Nigeria).
On the brink, Africa imports 28 per cent maize from other countries to meet maize requirements as most of African Maize is cultivated under rainfed conditions.
Importance of Maize
Maize is significantly valuable for both the global food system and local societies.
Maize is a primary source of earning for the farmers of developing countries.
Fourteen countries of Sub Sharan Countries depend on Maize as their staple food (almost 85 to 95 %).
Maize grains are highly nourishing and enriched with Vitamin C, A, and E.
It contains nine percent proteins, ß-carotene, fiber, starch, fiber, minerals, and carbohydrates.
Maize is one of the predetermined crops in some countries of the world as Maize’s demand is increased by 25% globally in 2020, but devastating diseases limit its yield. Many things cause havoc on maize crops, just like soil compaction, environmental degradation, cool whether stunted or uneven growth, and floods.
But the disease is (root diseases, insects, and pests diseases) the primary factor.
It is a necessity to save Maize by this disaster. Pests may occur when the plant starts growing, it can cause infection at any stage even some pests attack during germination; these pests may be cutworms, true and false wireworm, black field earwig, maize leafhoppers, and some others.
Plant Protection Practices
We can follow these practices to save Maize so that we can obtain a better yield.
#1. IPM/IPC: IPM stands for Integrated pest management or Integrated pest control. It is an effective way to integrate practices to control pests economically. It restricts the pest population below the Economic Injury Level. It can pertain to home, gardens, and fields.
#2. SOM: Soil Organic Matter is the content that is formed after the decomposition of animal and plant residues. It includes soil aggregation by clumping. It increases permeability and soil structure that prevents soil erosion, tillage, and shrinking. Nitrogen Fixing Legumes can improve soil fertility.
#3. CA: CA or Conservation Agriculture is a resources-saving agricultural system to produce a crop that gives both profits and sustained production. Conservation agriculture practice requires less soil disturbance and using surface mulch. By adopting such a way, we can boost maize yield.
#4. Improved Variety and Farming: Improved variety is a necessity of today’s farming. The best will be the variety; the more will be a crop. It is incredibly helpful to tolerate heat, increase crop yields up to 23 per cent. It gives higher productivity. Nutrition enhanced and strengthen food.
#5: Wise Water Management; Maize Grains give a significant amount of yield if it is watered well. If a crop is watered wisely, it can provide you with increased crop yields, As if you provide water by sprinkler irrigation system or drop by drop.