Africa is one of the most exposed countries to climate change, Its exposure to climate change (to a dangerous extent) is because of limited adaptive potential, poorly developed farming system, relying on Nature stuff for food.
Impacts of Climate Change
These impacts are felt from decades; it is damaging our;
- Ecosystem – As the climate changes, it affects biodiversity, trophic webs or energy flux, and nutrient cycling.
- Glaciers – Due to an increase in temperature, the glaciers are melting, so the sea level is also increasing.
- Agriculture – Drought is a cause of the decline in Agriculture. Warmer temperature causing drought.
- Human Health– as and the temperature is increasing. It is affected by human health. It causes anxiety, depression, and heatstroke.
- Water Resources – Climate change increasing evaporation from land and soil, so some areas are arid, and others are damaged by excess participation.
- Wildlife – Climate Change is destroying the places they live and their food. Due to climate change, a 40% giraffe population is declined.
Adapting To Climate Change
To cope with climate change’s adverse effects, African countries must adopt effective management, just like Mitigate and Integration, Improvized farming system, Using Advanced Technology, Protecting Forests, Policies at Government Level, and Business Policies.
How Irrigation System Can Be Helpful During Climate Change For Low Budget Farmers
African farmers need better strategies to increase their income. The irrigation system is adaptive to climate change. The Irrigation System is a method to distribute water to the soil through spray, pump, and tube.
Types of Irrigation System:
- Drip Irrigation: Drops of water are delivered near to the root.
- Central Pivot Irrigation or Water Wheel: Water is distributed in the form of sprinkles with a wheeled tower that moves in a circular motion.
- Sprinkler Irrigation: Water is distributed by high sprinkle pressure at the center of the field.
- Sub Irrigation: Water is distributed to the root zone, and excessive moisture can be collected again after Irrigation.
- Manual Irrigation: Water is distributed with the help of cans or drums. It is an ancient, unique, simple, and effective method of Irrigation.
- Localized Irrigation: Water is distributed, having low pressure with the help of pipes to each plant.
- Surface Irrigation: When water is distributed over the soil surface by gravity.
Benefits of Irrigation System
- It is beneficial in the areas which face drought and irregular rainfall.
- It helps to reproduce better quality crops.
- It increases crop yields by 25%.
- The water that is given by Irrigation will enhance soil conditions.
- It will help to dissolve nutrients better in soil.
- Irrigation System is the best way to save water.
- A specific amount of water is provided to plants when plants need it.
How Irrigation System is helpful for Low Budget Farmers
This Irrigation system has many benefits that can help smallholders improve their livelihood and future food crop. Here we will discuss some main points that are crystal clear keys to progress.
- Quality Crops: The crop that is cultivated by the irrigation system is highly nutritional and healthy. Irrigation helps plants to absorb nutrients from the soil easily. It helps to save the usage of extra water but gives more yield.
- Investment in Irrigation: As the population is increasing in Africa, the demand for food is also growing. Its solution is to invest in irrigating without worrying about yield because it will produce enough to meet future food demand and be a great source of profit as the food products’ price is increasing day by day.
- Start from Small and Extend it as per Budget: Low budget farmers don’t have enough money to start a business on a large scale, but if they withdraw from a small scale and go for an extension, they will earn a lot in this field as they will employ many other Farmers.
- Water Management: As the irrigation system is water-saving and farmers don’t have to pay for watering the crop. So, a farmer having low but get can quickly cultivate better crops.
- Promote Team Work and Affordable Technologies: Suppose Farmers work in the form of a team involving smallholders. In that case, it will help a lot as their investment will help take advantage of the affordable technology as Irrigation System’s cost is reasonable, and it can be implemented, but it needs further promotion. And the involvement of poor farmers will help them as well as to grow the country economically.
As we have discussed how climate change affects African countries and other parts of the world, So we have suggested the irrigation system overcome this situation. It is especially helpful for those countries that are hit by drought and irregular rainfall.